OTHER RULERS DURING TUDOR TIMES
| Popes |
| Holy Roman Emperors || Emperors of Japan |
| Kings of Denmark and Norway |
| Kings of France |
| Kings of Hungary |
Hungary was effectively split into 3 parts: a Habsburg domain in the north and west, Ottoman domain in the center, and the Ottoman satellite Transylvania in the east after 1562.
| Kings of Poland |
| Kings of Portugal || Kings and Queens of Scotland || Kings and Queens of Spain |
(this one is complicated by the various regional titles in Spain)
Kings of Sweden
| Sovreigns of the Dutch Republic || Tsars of Russia |
| Dukes of Bavaria |
| Dukes of Lorraine |
| Dukes and Electors of Saxony |
In 1547, following Emperor Carlos V's victory at the Battle of Mühlberg, Wittenberg and the Electoral dignity passed to the Albertine line. The Ernestine line continued to rule in southern Thuringian, but their lands eventually split up into many different tiny duchies, of which Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, and Saxe-Altenburg lasted until 1918. This article does not list the subsequent Ernestine dukes.
| Electors of Brandenburg |
| Regents of the Netherlands/ Low Countries |
In 1581 the United Provinces declared themselves independent of Spain.
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